APPLE: Fix for iTunes error – The registry settings used by the iTunes drivers for importing and burning CDs and DVDs are missing

***Update 11/7/2009 – Am additional step that may help a few of you who were unable to resolve the issue after following the steps in the original post. Follow the original steps in the post and then do the step in RED at the bottom of the post


itunes_logo Today’s post covers an iTunes error that seems to be a fairly common issue with iTunes, however, if you look on the Apple site there doesn’t seem to be an answer other than download the latest version and reinstall.

“ERROR: The registry settings used by the iTunes drivers for importing and burning cds and DVDs are missing… Please re-install iTunes”

The problem with the update/reinstall solution is that (as many have reported) it doesn’t fix the problem.

I received a call from a family member asking for assistance with fixing this today.  Here is what I did and was able to get it corrected without having to reinstall iTunes.

  1. Make sure that iTunes is closed and if you have an iPod that it isn’t connected to the pc during this fix.
  2. Go to the GEAR Software website (http://www NULL.gearsoftware NULL.cfm) and download the latest GEAR drivers (iTunes uses GEAR software drivers for importing and burning CD’s & DVD’s)
GEAR software From the GEAR website – (http://www NULL.gearsoftware NULL.cfm)
The file you need to download and install is showing (on Left) next to the arrow.

3.  Install the GEAR software that you downloaded. You can use all default settings

4. Once you install the GEAR software, the next step will require you to adjust a setting in your registry**


Run box XPGo to Start –> Run

regedit box

In the run box type Regedit and click ok

regedit find 1

In the regedit box click on edit and the click on Find

regedit find 2 keyIn the find window type 4D36E965-E325-11CE-BFC1-08002BE10318 the click ok

regedit find 3 result

In the window on the left you will see the key highlighted. Look on the right window for a listing for UpperFliters.  If you don’t see it right click in the middle of the right box and select Multi String Value and call it UpperFilters.

regedit find 3 key

If its already there (or once you have added it) right click on UpperFilter and left click on Modify

regedit find 4 change

In the window that opens you will see InCD or something similar.  Remove what’s listed and add GEARAspiWDM in the Value data window and hit enter.  The click ok and then click on the X on top right to close registry.

****************************New Step:****************************************

– This step requires that your pc be set up to show extensions for known file types.  Which means if you look at any file in your c:\ drive it will show up as afs.sys not just afs.  If you don’t see the .sys or .exe or .doc, etc when looking at your files please see TGM post “Showing hidden files, folders and extensions” ( (http://techgeekandmore and follow those steps 1st.

 – Once you know you can see the file extensions, open My computer –> C:\ –> Windows –> System32 –> Drivers.  In the drivers folder look for a file called afs.sys (There is also one called afd.sys, do not touch that one).  If you don’t see afs.sys, then close the Window and restart iTunes.

– If you do see afs.sys, right click it and select rename, and then rename the file to afs.txt.  This file (from a company called Oak Technologies) will be there if you have iTunes or Norton Ghost, or Norton 360 (even if you have uninstalled the program).  Once you rename that file (notice how I’m saying rename NOT delete). Restart your computer


Once pc has restarted – restart iTunes and issue should be resolved.


  • JimmyBean

    I don’t know If I said it already but …Excellent site, keep up the good work. I read a lot of blogs on a daily basis and for the most part, people lack substance but, I just wanted to make a quick comment to say I’m glad I found your blog. Thanks, 🙂

    A definite great read..Jim Bean

  • Zack

    Well done! I know these docs take a good chunk of time to produce. Thanks for taking the time.

  • Smith TimsawatNo Gravatar

    I followed up the precedures but the buggy still comes up…any thought? It was ok. at first until I installed Nero 8.

    HP 8710w with XP Pro and the latest itune.

    • techgeekandmoreNo Gravatar

      One suggestion off the top of my head. If you have iTunes and Nero, uninstall both, reboot. Then install Nero 1st followed by iTunes and then follow my steps.
      I will look for additional information and see if I can get any more steps to try.
      Thank you for reading TGM and I will get additional information, as soon as I do some more research on the matter.

  • RobertNo Gravatar

    Thank you for the help! I’ve been struggling to fix my wife’s computer and this was a big help. I really appreciate how easy you made it.

  • LynnNo Gravatar

    hallelujah, a fix that worked at last!

  • aguycalledbradNo Gravatar

    You Champion. Utter Champion. Ever since I attempted to update my iPhone this error came up, leaving me with a useless iPhone (paritally updated, therefore unusable)and an i-Tunes that would not burn CDs. Every attempted fix failed, Except this one.

  • ErinNo Gravatar

    Hi there,

    I have been trying to deal with this issue for the last couple of weeks. I recently built a brand new computer and run 64 bit Windows 7. I have the most recent version of Itunes, 9.0.2. I at first thought the UAC was causing issues by forcing the “allowing” of every song you tried to play (which it actually does… but it’s not the problem) or some other permissions related issue. I then rationalised that since I can play CDs in any other player and burn with any other burning software that it had to be something specific to Itunes. I came across the gearsoftware website and their explanation of the issue seemed to make the most sense (see (http://www NULL.gearsoftware NULL.php?title=GEAR_Powered_Products) …and the related…,_removing,_64_bit_versions,_etc#Manual_Removal_.E2.80.93_32-bit (http://www NULL.gearsoftware NULL.php?title=DRIVERS:_Windows_-_Updating,_removing,_64_bit_versions,_etc#Manual_Removal_ NULL.E2 NULL.80 NULL.93_32-bit)). I followed these instructions to the letter. They’re much the same as yours but more detailed. Neither solution works for me. I’m so stressed by the ridiculous loop I’m going in and I can’t fix the problem at all. I’ve reinstalled Itunes about a dozen times by now and even managed to stuff around with the settings so it’s constantly telling me its running in compatibility mode and I can’t get rid of that now either. Either it won’t turn off, or it just sticks around despite being switched off.

    There is a thread at the apple forums about the problem, but that’s not a particularly effective solution either… (http://windows7forums NULL.html) I have so many “solutions” but nothing works!

    Can you offer any further advice on this problem? You obviously are highly intuitive to be able to recognise the issue as quickly as you have when so many others are running off on many other tangents.

    Exhausted Erin

  • ChrisNo Gravatar

    This error has been bothering for a couple months. This was



    it worked.

    THANK YOU!!!!!!!

  • OsNo Gravatar

    I have tried all recommended solutions to no avail. Any further info that might help? I am using Vista Home Premium… 32 bits. Thanks,

  • AXP106No Gravatar

    You ROCK! This was super easy, and I can burn CD’s again!! Thank you very much for taking the time to put this together!!!!


  • Roger TNo Gravatar

    Thank you so much! I was going crazy trying to fix this problem. Other sites had similar instructions but weren’t as detailed as yours.

    Aloha from Hawaii!

  • GizzlarNo Gravatar

    whoever created this tutorial is awesome! thankyou so much this has been bugging me heaps! thanks again!

  • matNo Gravatar

    wow, i gotta say man, i’ve been struggling with this problem for awhile. you fixed it!

    thanks a ton man! great site!!!

  • Steven PrestonNo Gravatar

    After I had to change out my DVD burner, I could not get iTunes to burn CDs to the new drive despite numerous uninstall/reinstall cycles with iTunes. Your fix worked perfectly, saved me endless time, aggravation and money and I am deeply grateful. Whatever meager power I have to influence the universe, I will use to send a boatload of good karma your way. Thank you!

  • IanNo Gravatar

    Thanks a lot! This had been driving me insane for ages …

  • StuartNo Gravatar

    This worked like a charm !!! Just used your fix for iTunes ver. ver — now she thinks Im a genius.

  • Laura TNo Gravatar

    THANKS!!! I’ve been trying for hours to get this to work and for some reason skipped right over you saying that if you don’t see UpperFilters to rename multi string value to that and do the rest. I’m so glad I came here and re-read everything! It seems to have worked. Itunes opens with out the error now. I guess the true test will be tomorrow when my son tries to put music on his ipod. At least that darn error message is gone! I’m sure it will work now. Thanks again for posting this!!!


  • MikeNo Gravatar

    I followed the instructions to the letter, but when I get to the final step I can’t find afs.sys. I’ve ran through it several times and completely reinstalled iTunes to no avail. Any ideas?

    • Alex NoveloNo Gravatar

      I have had a few people tell me that it did not work for them. If you could privately send me your pc specs (Hardware, OS, Software installed) it would help to see if I can find the reason for why a few people have not been able to get this to work.
      Head of TGM

  • lauraNo Gravatar

    i’ve tried everything and still get the error. i don’t have, or can’t find, the afs.sys under My computer –> C:\ –> Windows –> System32 –> Drivers. any ideas?

  • CavanNo Gravatar

    You are a genius. Now if I can only get my cd/ dvd burning software to recognize my DVD burner, I’ll be all set. Thanks.

  • KatrinaNo Gravatar


    I was unable to find your email so I’m leaving a comment here.

    I’m using 32-bit Windows 7 Home Premium on a Sony VGN-SZ670n. The only burning software I have installed is iTunes and whatever came on the Sony eSupport Website as drivers for my computer (which I installed after I did a clean upgrade to Win7). My optical drive is a Matshita DVD-RAM UJ-852S ATA drive. I am using the latest version of iTunes which I believe is 9.0.2 or something like that.

    I have tried nearly every solution offered. I deleted LowerFilters, created a multi-string value for UpperFilters and remembered to press enter at the end. This, at least, made my optical drive functional– and at this point I am able to import CDs but not burn them within iTunes.

    In regard to your solution, I did everything involved but I was unable to find afs.sys at all. Even while iTunes was running.

    Please let me know if you think you can help or if there is anything more I need to tell you. I am lost and really frustrated.

  • ChrisNo Gravatar

    Umm, I can’t find the UpperFilters thing.. help?

  • AndreasNo Gravatar

    Nice guide, it doesn’t work yet though. I will just have to guess which one of your ‘UpperFilter’ and ‘UpperFilters’ is the correct keyname. Wish me luck.

  • Don EdwardsNo Gravatar

    You are a gift to manking! I had half my hair pulled out trying to find a fix, yours worked just as you said. Many Thanks, Don E.

  • Dan The ManNo Gravatar

    Most complete and detailed solution I have found that actually works! Like others, I’ve been trying to fix this problem for the last couple of weeks. Thank you so much for your help!


  • AshwinNo Gravatar

    Could not burn CD from my itunes………..THANK YOU SO MUCH, your instruction and and fix worked wonderfully. Keep up the good work.


  • ChrisTheRedNo Gravatar

    Using 32 bit Vista Home Premium on an HP Pavilion dv9000. My optical drive croaked on me and when I got the replacement the OS wasn’t seeing it, so I was idiot enough to run MS’s infernal “Fix it #50027” to delete the upper and lower registry entries. Now iTunes will not import discs irrespective of how many times I delete it, reinstall it, nor how many times I delete the optical drivers and reboot. There is no registry key matching the one specified above.

  • MikeNo Gravatar

    Still not working. Have tried everything. Old optical went out and itunes started giving me the warning. Put in a new burner and the itunes warning is still there. Have uninstalled/reinstalled itunes a few times and tried the fix above. Not sure what else to do. No other burning software besides ConvertXtoDVD. Although might look into getting some now. Any help would be appreciated. Running Windows XP SP3.

  • MikeNo Gravatar

    Please ignore the above post. I double checked everything and restarted the cpu again, and bam we are back in business. Thanx for the help.

  • Stu HabermehlNo Gravatar

    Worked like a champ! Thanks for the advice.

  • Pingback: iTunes I have Won « Because I Care (http://kmescha NULL.wordpress

  • GilbertNo Gravatar

    Great Fix….finally got rid of the annoying message. Thanks!!!

  • Frank JonesNo Gravatar

    Thank you for saving me from additional frustration and misery. My new Dell had a bad optical drive and in the process of “fixing” my issue their tech support folks monkeyed around with my registry and as a result iTunes started giving me this error. I went back to Dell on multiple occasions because after replacing the drive I was still having the problem. I was about ready to restore my PC to factory settings and re-install everything when I did one more Google search, and found your site. I followed your instructions and it is all good now. THANKS!!!

    Your directions fill in some of the blanks that the Apple support site has in their instructions to fix the problem, primarily the one where they don’t tell you what to do if you do not find an “UpperFilters” entry in the registry.

    Really glad I found your site.

  • User

    I’m so glad I came here and re-read everything! It seems to have worked. Itunes opens with out the error now. I guess the true test will be tomorrow when my son tries to put music on his ipod. At least that darn error message is gone! I’m sure it will work now.

  • RobNo Gravatar

    Thank you, this fixed my itunes problem. You are very kind to help others.

  • RobNo Gravatar

    Oh, at first I mistakenly had a space between Upper and Filters. But after renaming entry to “UpperFilters” it worked. Thanks

  • LisaNo Gravatar

    I’ve been going round in circles for days trying to figure out why my dvd drive disappeared from My Computer AND from the Device Manager. I’m running Hp Pavilion notebook dv9700 Win Vista 64 bit. I’ve had it for 21 months with NO problems.

    I ran through ALL the fixes at Microsoft (Mr Fixit in it’s various forms did not fix anything). Then I ran through every tweak and fix i could find at HP’s website.

    I even ran recovery and completely hosed the harddrive..reformatted and reinstalled everything (took me two days in full to back up everything and reinstall). Even THEN the dvd drive wouldn’t show up.

    Eventually, I took the dvd drive out of my laptop…reseated it. DVD drive showed up, only to disappear moments later. ARGH.

    After a few rounds of reseating it – and thoroughly cleaning everything I could – I rebooted and the dvd drive showed up again.

    The funny thing is – I had run across sites saying it was something to do with iTunes, but I had NO problems before and couldn’t see how iTunes was the cause. In any case, tonight, once I felt the dvd drive was settled – I went ahead and installed some plugins for Firefox – one of which was Quicktime. I also installed VLC media player today. Tonight, when I started iTunes – I got the error message saying the dvd burning drivers were missing – and to reinstall iTunes. Did that twice – same error. I thought, here we go again……

    After reinstalling and getting the error – I found your link. Followed all the steps and now the error message is gone. I haven’t rebooted my computer yet to see if the DVD drive will still be there after reboot. I’m hoping it will be.

    There is just one thing that’s really weird now.
    My dvd drive has been renamed. It was Pioneer DVDRW – ATA DEVICE (or something like that)..and now it’s got strange letters like PANOEER D<DVW(LR-KLO8HJ ATA DEVICE!

    I just scanned for hardware changes (device manager) and it 'renamed' it again!

    I have NO clue what's going on.

    Going to reboot now and see if it settles. I'm only posting here because I know many are searching for a fix to this dvd-rom missing from 'my computer' and 'device manager' problem – and it's seemingly connected to VISTA and iTunes somehow (registry entries).

    I hate microsoft. I so want an Apple now.
    Thanks for your article!

  • LisaNo Gravatar

    Completely flummoxed here.

    iTunes is okay now.

    However, after rebooting my laptop – the dvd drive is still name something odd (see my last post toward the end). When I put in a dvd – it will not play. BEFORE rebooting – it gave me some strange error saying the drive was corrupted. But I KNOW this dvd drive is OK. AFTER rebooting, the error message NOW says the disc might be corrupted (to clean it). The dvd disc is clean and it is not corrupted (can play it with no trouble on other systems – pcs, and dvd players).

    The point I’m at, and I’m hoping someone might be able to help me is this:
    iTunes is okay – no errors.
    DVD rom shows in My Computer and Device Manager, but it won’t play dvds or cds. And it’s not named as it should be (Pioneer DVDRW – KH08HJ ATA DEVICE – or something similar to that – as I recall it).

    So, I’m wondering what now. Any ideas anyone?

    I’ve been through all the steps of deleting upper and lower filters….running MrFixit’s, reformatting and reinstalling Vista and all programs (one by one). Even reseating the optical (dvd) drive.

    Incidentally, since I’m running 64bit – would that by why I had no afs.sys file in my system32 folder?

    One thing that’s different for me now is that BEFORE I reformatted my hdd – I had iTunes 32bit installed. Today, however, I noticed Apple had iTunes in 64bit.

    So, now I’m wondering if that has somehow corrupted the drivers for my dvd drive?? Maybe should uninstall iTunes 64bit and install iTunes 32bit?

  • LisaNo Gravatar

    p.s. I forgot to add one really important step I took that seemed to leave my dvd drive alone (i.e. it didn’t disappear from My Computer or the Device Manager) and it was this:

    I uninstalled the microsoft update called:
    Cumulative Update for Media Center for Windows Vista x64-based Systems (KB974306)

    Once I uninstalled that update, my dvd drive STOPPED disappearing. Sorry I forgot to mention this before, but I think it’s important.

    Later, once the dvd drive was recognised and working – I installed iTunes, and Quicktime. Then VLC media player. Then the drive got ‘renamed’. Since reading your article, I’ve deleted the drive from Device Manager – rebooted to allow Windows to detect and install the drivers/device again. But it’s still named oddly (strange letters). And it won’t read any cds or dvds.

    I’m convinced it’s something to do with Vista, iTunes and perhaps VLC – because AFTER I uninstalled the Windows Cumulative update for Media Center x64 – it worked. But, after installing iTunes and later, VLC – iTunes misbehaved and gave me the error about the cd/dvd burning drives being corrupter. I’ve gone through your steps and iTunes is still okay now. I even used iTunes diagnostics to test the drive. It detects the drive (in corrupted-named form) but can’t read or write.

    If you can offer any help, it would be greatly appreciated. After much searching on the net, it appears this problem is pretty common and not unique to me or my laptop.

  • Curtis FoxNo Gravatar

    Hey! Thanks for the article. It helped get me on the right track, however, I wanted to post a couple more things for those who might run into the same problems that I did. Where I ran into problems was searching for the correct Registry Key. I am running Windows 7 64bit and maybe that’s the difference. When I first searched for the key you told us to search for, it actually was pulling up the wrong key. It pulled up a key under HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE/SOFTWARE/Microsoft/WindowsNT/CurrentVersion/DeviceDisplayObjects/SetupClassInformation and I tried putting the “UpperFilters” string here and of course it didn’t work. The Apple KB Article here: (http://support helped me find the right key to edit. It was for iTunes 8 and Windows XP, but it still led the way to the right key. For all others searching for the right key to edit search for the same key “4D36E965-E325-11CE-BFC1-08002BE10318” but make sure you are searching under HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE/SYSTEM and you should get to the correct key. The actual path is HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE/SYSTEM/ControlSet001/Control/Class/4D36E965-E325-11CE-BFC1-08002BE10318. Hope this helps someone else… I did at least 5 complete uninstalls of everything Apple off my computer including hidden files and registry keys and reinstalled everything each time to no avail because I was editing the wrong registry key. I imagine others with more registry savvy wouldn’t have this problem, but I only touch the registry when required. Anyways, thanks to the author for pretty much showing the way on how to fix this issue. Blessings!

  • Donnie DoNo Gravatar

    All systems go. It’s so nice to find someone who know’s what there talking about. Thank you so much. Donnie Do…

  • RichNo Gravatar

    Great fix – I’ve had this annoying problem for ages. Thanks very much and keep up the good work.

  • JenNo Gravatar

    Worked for me! Thanks for posting!

  • Dave CNo Gravatar

    Wow – worked like a charm! Thanks so much!!

  • Anita WNo Gravatar

    I have tried this fix, but my registry editor only has UpperFilters.bak as the name and “GEARAspiWDM” is already in the Data. I have no “afs.sys” in my drivers folder. I uninstalled iTunes and that doesn’t change anything.

  • goldygopherNo Gravatar

    Worked – thanks a ton for this guide. For Win 7 64 bit users, you may have to go to this version of regedit to find the right keys to edit: %systemroot%syswow64regedit

    I did, but was then able to follow the guide to the tee. Didn’t have the afs.sys file on my system either.

  • AmyNo Gravatar

    It worked!! Thank you so much. My husband and I have been going crazy for 3 days. Thank you so much!

  • NickNo Gravatar

    People like you make the world a better place! Thank you!
    (worked like a charm first try)

  • RobertNo Gravatar

    This is awesome! … Problem began today (Christmas) and my daughter got an iTouch so this was great. I am not a computer guy and this worked perfectly. Thanks

  • kimNo Gravatar

    this is great thank you so much for this solution it worked like a charm.

  • bethNo Gravatar

    not working for me!

    I follow everything and get to the asp.sys step and it’s not there. I hoped it would work anyway, but any CD I insert doesn’t work. A few other people have asked, but there are no replies for this last little problem. I’ve been working on this for a week with SO MANY sites and thought I had it figured out!!!

  • bethNo Gravatar

    oops I know I spelled it wrong in my above comment, but afs.sys is not there, either 🙂

  • RuthNo Gravatar

    Hi! I followed the instructions and at first it didn’t work. I updated to iTunes and my os is Windows 7. Like some others, I couldn’t find the afs.sys file. So I ran the Diagnostics test in iTunes (Help -> Run Diagnostics). The only test I ran was “CD/DVD Drive Tests” and found that under “CD/DVD Drive Tests” in the report, the driver for UpperFilters was still not listed! (No drivers in UpperFilters). So I back tracked in REGEDIT and found that I had changed the key in the wrong folder! I had changed the UpperFilters in “HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE –> SYSTEM –> ControlSet001 –> Control –> Class –> 4D36E965…”
    It should have been “CurrentControlSet” instead of “ControlSet001”. That did the trick! I hope my contribution helps! I am so glad I found this website! Thank you, TGAM!

  • SuperBobNo Gravatar

    Great! I’ve spent hours searching for a cure for this problem that actually worked. This did! Thanks a million.

  • JesseNo Gravatar

    Thanks a bunch! Worked on the first try.

  • LashareNo Gravatar

    Thanks my friend you’re the man God bless you

  • JimNo Gravatar

    I did everything as suggested, including checking for the afs.sys file (which was not there.) When I restarted iTunes, the damn notice still appeared. 🙁 Looks like I’m going to just have to deal with it until I get a new computer!

  • JimNo Gravatar

    Just a followup….did what Ruth suggested. Despite the driver being listed correctly in the registry under UpperFilter, when I ran the CD/DVD iTunes diagnostics test, it says that there is no driver. Restarting the computer made no difference. Not sure how to proceed…

  • robrobbyrobNo Gravatar

    Followed each step, and worked like a charm. Awesome info ty 😉

  • FiringsquadNo Gravatar

    Where do i send a donation!

  • EmeryNo Gravatar

    I try it and it haven’t work

  • EmeryNo Gravatar

    I get this error message from the editor: Data of type REG_MULTI_SZ cannot contain empty strings. Registry editor will remove empty string found

  • EmeryNo Gravatar

    I decide to try something different, when I type GEARAspiWDM and Instead of hitting enter key, I just press OK button. I click on itunes and the message went away. But ran into a different problem: No drivers in LowerFilters.
    UpperFilters: GEARAspiWDM (,

    Failed while scanning for CD / DVD drives, error 2510.
    Virtual drives can sometimes interfere with reading and writing CDs in iTunes. If this is a virtual drive and you are having problems with other drives, try uninstalling the virtual CD application.

    E: Unsupported CD or DVD drive.
    Virtual drives can sometimes interfere with reading and writing CDs in iTunes. If this is a virtual drive and you are having problems with other drives, try uninstalling the virtual CD application.

  • EmeryNo Gravatar

    Great news, after putting lowerfiters in reg , put GEARAspiWDM and uninstalling GEAR drivers and then reinstall gear drivers and restart computer, open up ituens and did the test, it gave me a passed test for the CD-Rom’s.

  • JoshNo Gravatar

    Tried this in June ’11 and it still worked like a charm.

  • poohbarrNo Gravatar

    I have a friend that asked me about the issue and after hours of pulling out my hair I found this site! It worked perfectly and now I can go about re-attaching my hair and he is a very happy camper lol. Thanks a bunch 🙂

  • DelNo Gravatar

    Worked great. Nothing else I’ve attempted worked, but this seems to have worked excellently. I got some .dll error to begin with, but after a restart all is well. Thanks.

  • itunistNo Gravatar

    Worked. Thank you.

  • StephenNo Gravatar

    Great site fixed the problems I was having with itunes.

  • ToddNo Gravatar


  • SusanNo Gravatar

    Gear driver download of Octdober 18, 2011 fixed the problem w/o going into the registry. I’m running 7 64-bit. I was so frustrated with this. Thanks so much for steerig me to the Gear site.

  • GloriaNo Gravatar

    I want to thank you so much! I’ve had the problem on my laptop and just gave up on ever using the cd/DVD drive with iTunes again. I have been using my desktop for all my burning until I updated to 10.6.whatever and I could no longer burn CDs on it! I thought it was a virus! Then I found your solution! I did not even have to go into the registry, I just did the GEAR download on both of my computers and it worked! Thanks so much! By the way, I’m a sixty year old grandma..if I can do it with your help…well….thanks!